Buffers are solutions that maintain a constant pH in a reaction. They are essential in molecular diagnostics because many enzymes have specific pH ranges for optimal activity. Buffers also help to maintain ionic strength and prevent unwanted interactions between biomolecules. Here's how buffers are important in diagnostics:


Maintaining Enzyme Activity: Enzymes function best within a specific pH range. Buffers ensure this optimal pH is maintained throughout the diagnostic assay.


Optimizing Reaction Conditions: Buffers can influence factors like ionic strength, which can affect how biomolecules interact and how efficiently reactions proceed.


Standardization: Buffers with consistent compositions allow for standardized diagnostic protocols, ensuring reliable and reproducible results.